Vaccines & Cross-Protection Across Strains

Casting a Wide Net

Much like influenza, circulating rotavirus strains change from year to year and region to region. While rotavirus strain diversity and distribution varies around the world, clinical studies and post-licensure research have found that, unlike influenza vaccines, the two rotavirus vaccines available on the global market provide protection against a variety of circulating strains, including strains not included in the vaccines.1-5

VACCINEPROTECTION AGAINST STRAINS NOT INCLUDED IN VACCINEVACCINE EFFECTIVENESSCOUNTRY
RotarixG2P[4]71-94%United States, Brazil, Bolivia
G9P[4]94%Mexico
G9P[8]84%Bolivia
G9P[6]87%Bolivia
G3P[8]74-92%United States, Bolivia
RotaTeqG12P[8]83%United States
G2P[4]87-98%United States

Areas where future research is needed:

  • Exploring alternative approaches such as parental delivery of rotavirus antigens and/or inactivated vaccines, which may have improved efficacy and could potentially lower the risk of intussusception.
  • Examining how the gut microbiome influences vaccine effectiveness.
  • Using new data from early adopting African countries to analyze risks and benefits to help countries evaluate vaccine programs and make decisions regarding sustained use.
  • Examining barriers to rotavirus vaccine introduction and ways to overcome them.
  • Continuing to research and develop new vaccine candidates to ensure sufficient supply and affordable prices.
To learn more, read the ROTA Council Recommendations

 

1. Correia, J.B., et al., Effectiveness of monovalent rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix) against severe diarrhea caused by serotypically unrelated G2P[4] strains in Brazil. J Infect Dis, 2010. 201(3): p. 363-9.

2. Justino, M.C., et al., Effectiveness of the monovalent G1P[8] human rotavirus vaccine against hospitalization for severe G2P[4] rotavirus gastroenteritis in Belem, Brazil. Pediatr Infect Dis J, 2011. 30(5): p. 396-401.

3. Payne, D.C., et al., Effectiveness of pentavalent and monovalent rotavirus vaccines in concurrent use among US children <5 years of age, 2009-2011. Clin Infect Dis, 2013. 57(1): p. 13-20.

4. Cortese, M.M., et al., Leveraging state immunization information systems to measure the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine. Pediatrics, 2011. 128(6): p. e1474-81.

5. Cortese, M.M., et al., Effectiveness of monovalent and pentavalent rotavirus vaccine. Pediatrics, 2013. 132(1): p. e25-33.