Global Introduction Status
93 countries have introduced rotavirus vaccines. This includes 86 national introductions, 3 ongoing phased introductions, and 4 sub-national introductions.
The impact of the two currently licensed vaccines on severe rotavirus and all-cause diarrhea has been dramatic in countries that have introduced the vaccine.Learn More About Vaccine Health Impact
Of the 10 countries with the greatest number of rotavirus-related deaths, only five — Angola, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, and Pakistan — have introduced rotavirus vaccines nationally or initiated phased national introductions.
Progress is still needed in Afghanistan, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Niger, and Nigeria.1 Several high-burden countries plan to roll out the vaccine, with Gavi co-financing support, in the next few years. Among the five countries with rotavirus-related mortality greater than 300 deaths per 100,000 children under 5 — Afghanistan, Burundi, Chad, Mali, and Somalia — only Burundi and Mali have introduced rotavirus vaccines 2.
As of December 2017, 93 countries have introduced rotavirus vaccines.
This includes 86 national introductions, 3 ongoing phased introductions, and 4 sub-national introductions.
Current Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction Map
Only 1 in 3 children worldwide have access to rotavirus vaccines
Photo by Quarmyne/UNICEF
67% of all children—over 90 million infants—lack access to rotavirus vaccines
Regional Introduction Status
About 60% of countries in sub-Saharan Africa have introduced rotavirus vaccines. But because rotavirus disease burden is so high in this region — more than half of all rotavirus deaths occur in African countries 1 — it is critical that the remaining countries introduce vaccines to protect their children from rotavirus.
Nearly half of all rotavirus deaths occur in Asia, yet less than 20% of countries have introduced the vaccine nationally or sub-nationally. There is an urgent need for action in that region.
ROTA Council Recommendation
To date, 39 countries eligible for vaccine introduction support from Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, have introduced the vaccines. The vast majority of these countries were in sub-Saharan Africa, followed by the Americas, Europe, and the Eastern Mediterranean/Middle East.
Proportion of Countries with Rotavirus Vaccine in each WHO Region
- Africa 64%
- Americas 54%
- Eastern Mediterranean 55%
- Europe 33%
- South-East Asia 18%
- Western Pacific 30%
ROTA Council Recommendation
Low- and lower-middle-income countries that have introduced vaccines should share lessons learned with countries that have not yet introduced. Focused regional meetings should be supported to facilitate these shared experiences among diverse stakeholders.
Countries Including Rotavirus Vaccines in Their National Immunization Programs (by WHO region)
- Burkina Faso
- Côte d’Ivoire
- The Gambia
- Republic of the Congo
- Sao Tome and Principe
- Sierra Leone
- South Africa
- Dominican Republic
- El Salvador
- United States of America
- Pakistan (phased)
- Saudi Arabia
- United Arab Emirates
- Republic of Moldova
- United Kingdom
- India (phased)
- Marshall Islands
- New Zealand
In addition, four countries have introduced sub-nationally or as part of a pilot launch: Canada, the Philippines, Sweden, and Thailand.
VIEW-hub Data Visualization Tool for Rotavirus Vaccines
More data and maps on country introduction status for rotavirus vaccines are available at VIEW-hub.org, a publicly-accessible data visualization platform.
1. Tate, J.E., et al., Global, Regional, and National Estimates of Rotavirus Mortality in Children <5 Years of Age, 2000-2013. Clin Infect Dis, 2016. 62 Suppl 2: p. S96-s105.
2. Tate, J.E., et al., 2008 estimate of worldwide rotavirus-associated mortality in children younger than 5 years before the introduction of universal rotavirus vaccination programmes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis, 2012. 12(2): p.136-41.
3. International Vaccine Access Center, Vaccine Information and Epidemiology Window (VIEW-hub). 2017; Available from: http://www.view-hub.org/.